Transport represents around a quarter of Turkey’s total final energy demand. It is the sector with the second least share in total demand ahead of the agriculture sector. In terms of emissions, it ranks as the second largest contributor however, following the power sector’s emissions. The underlying reason is the sector’s energy mix which is predominantly based on oil products that covers more than 99% of the demand.

Transport’s energy demand is related to various modes of passenger and freight transport. Passenger cars is the most common transport mode. However, Turkey’s passenger car ownership of about 130 cars per 1,000 people is much below the levels seen in the OECD or the EU that is typically higher than 500. This points to the potential for growth in ownership over the coming years. Passenger transport via aviation is also rapidly growing. Buses and minibuses are also common forms of passenger transport. Freight transport is typically done by trucks in Turkey. Unlike in other countries, railways or domestic marine transport is less used.

The transition of transport sector’s energy mix can be enabled by the increased use of liquid and gaseous biofuels sourced from sustainable resources and electrification from electricity-using passenger cars, buses, trucks and trains.